Fellowship

ALFREDO SASSO

From the crisis to a “Third Yugoslavia”. The political project of Ante Marković and the Alliance of Reformist Forces

In the extensive literature on the crisis and the dissolution of the Second Yugoslavia, the role of the so-called “alternatives”, grounding on a democratic and progressive view of the Yugoslav state, has been understudied. My research project aims to explore the actor who most prominently embodied this option within institutions and the political system: Ante Marković, the federal Prime Minister from march 1989 to December 1991, and the Alliance of Reformist Forces of Yugoslavia (Savez Reformskih Snaga Jugoslavije, hereafter SRSJ), a party established by the same Marković in 1990. Through analysing public narratives, strategies and interactions of the Federal Government and of the party, the talk examines how a proposal explicitly grounded on “rational” and “negotiating” principles emerged and immediately faced structural or deliberate obstacles, as well as its own limits and faults, in a political arena increasingly polarized along ethno-national lines, within a context of extreme socio-economic crisis. In particular, the talk explores the Marković’s project in terms of its intrinsically political dimension and quest for social legitimacy, focusing on the following points: first, the attempt to reform the institutional framework through reshaping the federal jurisdictions and establishing a proper multi-party system at the state level, in order to set the bases for a “Third Yugoslavia”; second, the effort to convert into mobilized support the high political capital earned by its economic programme, inspired to an integration between market reforms and socialist elements (“new socialism”) rather than a fully neoliberal model, which had some correspondences with other 1989 transition paths in Central-Eastern Europe; third, the re-elaboration and re-animation of the founding historical and cultural principles of Yugoslav supranational unity.

VLADIMIR UNKOVSKI-KORICA

City Partnerships as Détente from Below? Twinning Bologna and Zagreb

This talk discusses a project, a work in progress, jointly developed by Dr Eloisa Betti and Dr Vladimir Unkovski-Korica, about the twinning of Bologna and Zagreb in the Cold War. Town twinning in the interwar period of the twentieth century has been called ‘Locarno from below’, an attempt to normalise relations in a continent ravaged by a world war. Named after the Locarno Treaties of 1925, which settled borders and promised mutual non-aggression in Europe. ‘Locarno from below’ related to attempts to use town twinning to educate populations in the spirit of partnership. Since this failed to prevent another war, why did town twinning recover after the Second World War and in the thick of the Cold War? Moreover, why concentrate on Bologna and Zagreb? This talk discusses town twinning as an attempt at overcoming several emblematic problems: improving relations between two states with recent border disputes and war; improving economic links as a bridge across political divisions; internationalising ‘municipal socialism’ as a road to national power; and increasing regional autonomies using city initiatives against the strait-jacket of nation-states. The talk therefore interrogates to what extent the links set up between Bologna and Zagreb can be seen as an early form of détente as various actors responded to the logic of a bipolar world. It also asks whether the hope of ‘détente from below’ was in fact utopian in the context of international economic inequalities, and therefore a harbinger of what we now know as globalisation. Finally, Dr Unkovski-Korica discusses the challenges of researching this topic on the Yugoslav side in relation to the state of archival sources.

VERA TRIPODI

The Metaphysis of Gender. Not Simply a Woman (or a Man).

Is a metaphysically sound objectivist account of sexed identity possible? Do gender categories exist because we recognize real distinctions in the world or because we agree to use gender terms while according to them categorical force? In this paper, I defend a non-realistic view of gender categories vis-à-vis Sally Haslanger’s recent attempt to argue in favor of a “thin” metaphysical realism of gender categories.

The presentation is divided in two parts. In the first, I present Haslanger’s view, as characterized by the two following theses: (i) there is an objective basis for gender distinction; and (ii) this basis is not the product of discursive effect. In my analysis, particular attention is given to her critique of anti-objectivism in relation to sexual categories and to the so-called “ubiquity of mediation thesis”, i. e., that all of our access to reality is mediated by language and knowledge. In the second part, I show why Haslanger’s approach is inadequate, by showing that sexed entities are neither natural kinds (i.e. common essences which a group may share), nor “objective types” (i.e. unities without an underlying essence). Here is a more detailed layout of my argument.

There is a genuinely metaphysical disagreement about whether our gender classifications capture a natural kind or a social kind. According to the genuine nominalist, the world by itself can’t tell us what gender is and humans create categories of sexual preference and behavior: a person is regarded as a “woman” or “man” because they are induced to believe that humans are either “woman” or “man”. Realists hold that this is not the case: humans are differentiated sexually as the woman/man dichotomy exists in reality. Haslanger is critical of both approaches: according to her, gender is an “objective type” (a group of things that have a certain unity) and a social kind of unity (not discursively constructed). On her approach, there is some non-random or non-arbitrary basis for the gender unity and this unity is not a matter of sharing properties. Haslanger’s idea is that gender as a concept is discursively constructed, but gender by itself is independent of us.

Unfortunaly, Haslanger’s defense of objectivism is given without specifying what precisely is objective about sexual difference, and a conflict – I will suggest – emerges between her realistic view and her social constructionist accounts of gender. More specifically, Haslanger’s account falls short of two defects. It does not adequately capture the fact that each person’s gender identity is unique. Furthermore, it disconnects gender from the fact that criteria for distinguishing sexes differ across times and places. These defects, I argue, may be resolved by thinking of gender as referring to tropes, that is particularized property manifestation can only exist in one location at one time. Womanness, for example, is neither the special way a woman participates in a universal, nor a peculiar quality of a woman, but simply something that a particular person – and that person alone – has. Such a way of thinking about gender allows us to see a woman without identifying common attributes that all women have, or without implying that all women have a common – natural or social – identity and to explain what it is for two tokens (individual instances) to be of the same type in terms of resemblance. As result, I conclude, one’s gender may not be entirely stable and there is no feature of identity or unity itself that all women share.

THE FELLOWS 2015/2016

This year, the Center for Advanced Studies – Southeastern Europe (CAS – SEE) invited seven Fellows from four different countries. In the below you can see our current Fellows.

 


 Giulia Profile PicGiulia Carabelli (London – Great Britain)
Project – title: The Ties That (un) Bind: Affect and Organization in the Bosnia-Herzegovina Protests, 2014

Giulia holds a PhD in sociology at Queen’s University Belfast and a Masters in Research Architecture at Goldsmiths College. Her PhD thesis, developed as part of the “Conflict in Cities and the Contested State” project, examined the process of reconstructing Mostar (Bosnia Herzegovina). Giulia’s research interest is located at the intersection of urban sociology, art practice, and political theory. In particular, she is interested in analysis of urban space production in relation to notions of political resistance, social change, and modes of criticality. Giulia mainly works as an ethnographer in exploring the roles and potential of grassroots movements and civil society actors in the making of urban spaces in contested and politically fragile environments.


Aleksandra Djurasovic_photoAleksandra Djurasovic (New York City – USA)

Project – title: Rethinking large-scale development projects in Belgrade and Zagreb

Aleksandra Djurasovic is Ph.D. candidate at the Institute for Urban Planning and Regional Development, HafenCity University Hamburg, Germany. She obtained her Bachelor’s Degree from the University of California Davis in Landscape Architecture and Psychology and her Graduate degree in Urban Planning from the City College of New York. Born in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Djurasovic’s academic interests lie in post-socialist, neoliberal and war-to-peace transition in Southeast Europe, urban planning, urban sustainability, urban division, etc.


Francesco Marone (Milano – Italy)

Project – title: The Social Organization of Migrant Smuggling from Libya to Italy

Francesco Marone holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Pavia, Italy.
He is currently a Research Fellow at the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the University of Pavia, where he is also member of the research group on migration and security. Moreover, he is an Adjunct Lecturer in International Relations and Diplomacy at the University Institute Ciels – Umanitaria in Milan, Italy.
Francesco is also a Non-resident Research Associate at the Center for International Studies (CEI) of the University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal.
He was a Visiting Fellow at Aberystwyth University, Wales, and a Visiting Postdoctoral Researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
His research interests include political violence, migration and security, and clandestine organizations.
Francesco is author of a monograph and numerous journal articles, book chapters and analyses. His current project deals with the connection between migration flows in the Mediterranean area and security threats.


Piro Rexhepi PicturePiro Rexhepi (New York City – USA)

Project – title: Unmapping Islam in Eastern Europe:  Periodization and Muslim Subjectivities in the Balkans

Dr. Piro Rexhepi is a scholar of East European Studies currently teaching at the Center for Global Affairs, New York University. He holds a PhD in Politics from the University of Strathclyde, UK (2013). His research is located in the Queer and Feminist Theories in International Relations with special interest in Islam and Southeastern Europe. He is fluent in Albanian, Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian.


Julija Sardelić (Florence – Italy)

Project – title: Acts of Citizenship from the Margins:  Romani Minorities and Social Movements in Southeastern Europe

Julija Sardelic holds a PhD in Sociology from the University of Ljubljana and MA in Nationalism Studies with Distinction from the Central European University. She has previously worked as a Research Fellow on a CITSEE Research Project (Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia, more info: www.citsee.eu) at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh and is also affiliated with the Max Weber Programme at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. Her research interests encompass broader topics of citizenship and migration, but she is particularly focusing on the position of post-Yugoslav Roma as citizens and migrants. In addition to her academic endeavors, she has more then a decade of experience in working as a civil society activist in different Romani communities in the post-Yugoslav space. As a CAS SEE Fellow, Julija will conduct a research on Romani activists engaging in different protests and movements with their co-citizens in the post-Yugoslav space.


Vera tipodiVera Tripodi (Torino – Italy)

Project – title: Epistemic Injustice, Prejudice and Inequalities of Social Power

Postdoctoral Fellow Research at the University of Turin, where she works on a project on gender categories and social kinds. She received her Ph.D. in Logic and Epistemology from the University of Rome “La Sapienza” in 2007. Before taking up her post in Turin, she was a Post-doctoral Researcher with the Logos Group at the University of Barcelona. Before that, she was a Postdoctoral Fellow Research at STK (Centre for Gender Research) at the University of Oslo and a Visiting Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Columbia University in New York. She specializes in feminist philosophy, metaphysics of gender, and philosophy of language. She also has research interests in gender biases and the underrepresentation of women in philosophy.


Jeremy by SarahJeremy Walton (Göttingen – Germany)

Project – title: Spatial Practices of Muslim Minoritization in Turkey and Croatia

Jeremy F. Walton will join the Centre for Advanced Studies of South Eastern Europe at the University of Rijeka as a research fellow in Autumn 2015. From 2013 to 2015, he was a postdoctoral researcher at the CETREN Transregional Research Network at Georg August University of Göttingen, based in the pilot program, “The Politics of Secularism and the Emergence of New Religiosities.” During the 2012-2013 academic year, he was a Jamal Daniel Levant Postdoctoral Fellow at Georgetown University’s Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (CCAS). Prior to this, he was an Assistant Professor and Faculty Fellow in New York University’s Religious Studies Program (2009-2012). He received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Chicago (2009), and his book manuscript, Siting Islam: Sovereignty, Governmentality, and the Civil Society Effect in Turkey, is currently under review with Oxford University Press.