Architecture and Philosophy

Notation, Algorithm, Criticism: Towards a Critical Epistemology of Architecture

Venue and date: IUC, Dubrovnik, September 17-22, 2018

Course description:

In modernity, there is no place for architecture without critical reflection, just as modern culture without cultural criticism is no better than the barbarism it has replaced (Schnädelbach). Critique is necessary of any activity, be it artistic, political, or scientific. In 1976, it was the „crisis of utopia” that laid the foundation for the late Manfredo Tafuri’s “ideological criticism”. By contrast, the philosopher and politician Massimo Cacciari maintained that crisis “must be produced”, thus proclaiming that any intellectual position that does not posit itself as productive in regard to crisis is reactionary.

Admittedly, we look back today with a certain nostalgia on a critical theory of architecture as it emerged in the 1960s — the heyday of critical thought in sociology and philosophy. Architects such as Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, and Bernhard Tschumi along with philosophers such as Theodor Adorno, Jacques Derrida, Gianni Vattimo, and Fredric Jameson were among the pioneers of critical discourse in architecture. Each had their own specific critical agenda, with some of them more inclined toward subversive methods that aimed at undermining architecture as the last stronghold of metaphysics. In architecture, critical theory always coincides with critical practice.

Since then, criticism has been absorbed and utilized by the very same institutions that it had helped to create. It can hardly be overlooked that in digital consumer societies, criticism has become a powerful economic agent. “The task of criticism has, in fact, changed,” Tafuri wrote in the introduction to his seminal book Theories and History of Architecture, published in 1976. But even more has changed with the advent of digital media technology. In unprecedented ways, today’s media technologies interfere with the practice of knowledge and change them according to their own – digital – agenda. Cacciari’s plea for crisis as a driving force for the production of knowledge has turned into a common cultural practice.

The seminar addressed the concept of critique in architecture from a historic as well as contemporary perspective. It investigated core concepts such as critique and practice, authorship and agency, history and documentation, concept and diagram, as well as idea and project. What are the possibilities of critical practice today in the age of digital transparency? What are the cultural, aesthetic, and social implications of the current transition from 2-D design processes to 3-D modeling (BIM)? Is this shift to digital media technology of equal importance as Alberti’s 15th century shift to notation? The transfer of ideas into drawings onto paper first opened up architecture to the creative and intellectual play of representation, and allowed for references to architectural history and its philosophical ideas. Architectural practice turned into a critical practice when it separated thinking about architecture from building architecture. The potential of graphic notation transformed architecture into a modern, ambivalent, contradictory, and critical cultural practice equal to literature and philosophy. At times, it seems as if media technology hollows out architecture’s critical consciousness and returns it to a simple practice of mere physical and material presence.

Course Directors:

Prof. Snjezana Prijic-Samarzija (University of Rijeka)

Prof. Joerg Gleiter (Technical University of Berlin)

Prof. Petar Bojanic (University of Belgrade/University of Rijeka)

Prof. Giovanni Durbiano (Politecnico di Torino)

Prof. Alessandro Armando (Politecnico di Torino)

 Lecturers:

Prof. Snjezana Prijic-Samarzija (University of Rijeka)

Prof. Joerg Gleiter (Technical University of Berlin)

Prof. Petar Bojanic (University of Belgrade/University of Rijeka)

Prof. Sanja Bojanic (University of Rijeka)

Prof. Alessandro Armando (Politecnico di Torino)

Dr. Lidia Gasperoni (Technical University of Berlin)

Dr. Christoph Engemann (Bauhaus-Universität Weimar)

Summer School Program

 

Natasha Jankovic

Architectural terRI(s)tories[1]:
mapping the process of city transformation

[1] Architectural stories about Rijeka’s territory

“Architecture represents one of the possible ways of how territory can be marked, but it is also a permanent trace of the process of its development. As a built form it is a sign in the ground, while as an idea it represents a trace of various approaches to its development within theoretical field. This research examines the significance and meaning of a single architectural gesture within the context of architectural narrative of the city territory by starting from the structural approach to observation of the territory and the method of post-structuralist analysis.
This research links and analyses: 1) the importance of the architectural gesture in the process of defining and developing the territory of the city, through 2) changing position from the phenomenological (formal, formative) to critical discourse of observing architecture, which examines 3) the potential of the interpretative narrative both of the architecture and the territory. With approach based on semantics and metaphors, the aim of the research of the territory and architecture as an element of its structure, is to ‘read’ some of the layers of the city (terRI[s]tories), which is considered as a cultural palimpsest, through processes and material layers of its changes and development.
This theoretical background and methodological apparatus was used in order do re-write 20.20 stoRIes of Rijeka (20 terRI(s)tories – Architectural stories about Rijeka’s territory from 20th century). More precise 20 terRI(s)tories as spatial sequencesfrom the period between 1920th (the year of Rijeka’s autonomy) and 2020th (the year when Rijeka will be European Capital of Culture) thematically grouped into different chapters were mapped with the aim of presenting some of the scapes – scenery views:  socialscapepowerscapevisionscapealterscapememoryscape and spaces of porosity (within differentscapes) of the Rijeka’s territory transformation. Reading of the terRI(s)tories should examine the potential of spatial narrativity within specific spatio-temporal context for a re-wRIting of a new stoRIes with(out) words or (new) objects by using of existingspatial sequences for future conceptions and actions.”

Natasha Jankovic is an architect, working in the filed of research, practice and education, currently in the position of research and teaching associate of the University of Belgrade – Faculty of Architecture,  where she obtained her PhD. So far, her particular research interests is given to the topic of the relationship between architecture and territory, architecture and nature, as well as city territory transformation. Publishes professional and scientific papers in national and international journals, books and conference proceedings. Participates in national and international exhibitions and architectural and urban competitions. Living in urban environments, she seeks to read some of the terri(s)tories (architectural inscriptions within the territory, written through architecture as a code of city structure) that serves as a document about the past processes of development; but she also wishes to mark the territory: by making an architectural gesture in a natural environment, in order to write some new terri(S)tory.

Between Intellectual and Sensory Reason: Towards an Epistemology of Architecture

Following last year’s course «Philosophy and Architecture: Inequality in the City» which took place at the IUC in Dubrovnik and engaged its participants in topics related to the political and urban implications of social injustice in cities, this year’s summer school’s  focus was on the double bind of architecture as a material practice and as an agent of knowledge production. Philosophers, art historians, theoreticians of architecture, likewise architects joint together in Dubrovnik tackled emerging topics of relationship between architecture and epistemology, their mutual influences and impacts.

Participants:

Prof. Joerg Gleiter, Prof. Snjezana Prijic Samarzija, Prof. Petar Bojanic, Prof. Vladan Djokic, Prof. Zoran Lazovic, Prof. Ludger Schwarte, Prof. Carla Danani, Prof. Giusi Struimmello, Prof. Katharina Borsi, Dr. Sanja Bojanic, Dr. Luka Skansi, Dr. Mateja Kurir Borovčić Kasper Lægring, Roberto Bonturi, Fabiana Sforza, Jelena Radosavljević, Miloš Kostić, Madeleine Jessica Kennedy, Jovana Timotijević, Jovana Stojković, Hana Samaržija, Juan Almarza Anwandter, Stefana Dilova, Mirza Vranjakovic, Julian Franke, Sandra Meireis, Andrea Weigt, Theresa Rauch and Adria Daraban.

Partners and sponsors:

Technical University of Berlin, University of Belgrade, ERSTE Stiftung, German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Croatia.

Host: Inter University Center, Dubrovnik

 

 

Summer school “Between Intellectual and Sensory Reason: Towards an Epistemology of Architecture”

Program
Co-directors:

Snjezana Prijic Samarzija, University of Rijeka

Jörg H. Gleiter, Technical University Berlin

Petar Bojanic, University of Belgrade / CAS SEE University of Rijeka

Vladan Djokic, University of Belgrade

Focal Theme:

Throughout the history of philosophy, architecture has been widely referred to as a metaphor for conscious action and logical construction. For Aristotle the work of the master builder served as a metaphor for his philosophy of action, while Nietzsche used the metaphor of a “shaking tower of concepts” to visualize and make more comprehensible the precarious state of metaphysics. Yet architecture means much more to philosophy and critical thought than what the explanatory use of architectural imagery evokes. It was Kant who went beyond metaphor by claiming “architectonics is the art of systems”. As such, architecture is not only a cultural practice based on knowledge but moreover a cultural practice that serves the production of philosophical knowledge.

This course focuses on the double bind of architecture as a material practice and an agent of knowledge production. We will discuss the importance of architecture in the formation of thought. It will draw attention to architecture as a cultural practice between intellectual reason and sensual reason. It was Nietzsche who already emphasized the close interrelation between philosophy and architecture and insisted on the philosopher’s need for appropriate spaces for thinking. He held that after the death of God “we need some recognition of what above all is lacking in our big cities: quiet and wide, expansive places for reflection. Places with long, high-ceilinged cloisters for bad or all too sunny weather”.

Participants:

Prof. Joerg Gleiter, Prof. Snjezana Prijic Samarzija, Prof. Petar Bojanic, Prof. Vladan Djokic, Prof. Zoran Lazovic, Prof. Ludger Schwarte, Prof. Carla Danani, Prof. Giusi Struimmello, Prof. Katharina Borsi, Dr. Sanja Bojanic, Dr. Luka Skansi, Dr. Mateja Kurir Borovčić Kasper Lægring, Roberto Bonturi, Fabiana Sforza, Jelena Radosavljević, Miloš Kostić, Madeleine Jessica Kennedy, Jovana Timotijević, Jovana Stojković, Hana Samaržija, Juan Almarza Anwandter, Stefana Dilova, Mirza Vranjakovic, Julian Franke, Sandra Meireis, Andrea Weigt, Theresa Rauch and Adria Daraban.

Seminars will start at 10.00 am in the morning with open end in the evening.

In order to leave enough time for the intellectual exchange presentations shall be limited to 20 minutes (students MA/BA) and 30 minutes all others.

The presentations will be followed by 30 minutes respectively 40 minutes of discussion.

An individually assigned moderator/commentator will help to guide through the discussions.

Timetable
Monday, 11th September 2017
10.00-11.00  | Welcome and registrations

Venue: IUC – Ul. don Frana Bulica 4, 20000, Dubrovnik

How to get there? 

11.00-12.00  | Welcome address of Directors of the Course

Presentation of all participants; setting the daily schedule

Time Title Lecturer
12.00

13.00

Opening session: Introduction to the course Prof. Joerg Gleiter
13.00

14.30

Lunch
14.30

15.30

Spaces of Reflection – where does philosophy take place? Prof. Ludger Schwarte

 

Comments: Prof. Snjezana Prijic Samarzija

15.30

16.30

Pages for thinking. From Corviale to “sensible wisdom” …. in a too short step. Prof. Carla Danani

 

Comments: Prof. Giusi Struimmello

16.30

17.00

Pause
17.00

18.00

Epistemic Implications of Neuroarchitecture Hana Samarzija

 

Comments: Prof. Carla Danani

Tuesday, 12th September 2017
Time Title Lecturer
10.00

11.00

The Acts of Project(ion) Prof. Petar Bojanic

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

11.00

12.00

A new rational aesthetic: notes on the culture of space Dr. Luka Skansi

 

Comments: Prof. Ludger Schwarte

12.00

13.00

Architecture, Space and Alienation: between Adorno and Lefebvre Dr. Mateja Kurir Borovcic

 

Comments: Dr. Luka Skansi

13.00

15.00

Lunch
15.00

16.00

Drawing the Knowledge of Urbanism Prof. Katharina Borsi

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

16.00

16.15

Pause
16.15

17.15

Knowledge Fields: Between Scientific and Design-Based Knowledge Prof. Vladan Djokic

 

Comments: Prof. Ludger Schwarte

17.15

18.15

Representations of the fragmentary in architecture Adria Daraban

 

Comments: Sandra Meireis

Wednesday, 13th September 2017
14.00

15.30

Reading Laboratory
Time Title Lecturer
15.30

16.30

Between Being and Becoming: towards a metaphysical reading of architectural signs Juan Almarza Anwandter

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

16.30

17.30

Nietzsche’s thoughts about Architecture Mirza Vranjakovic

 

Comments: Prof. Giusi Struimmello

17.30

18.00

Pause
18.00

19.00

Diagrams in Architecture: Agents of knowledge production? Julian Franke

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

Thursday, 14th September 2017
Time Title Lecturer
10.00

10.45

Mythologisations of Contemporary Belgradian Architecture Prof. Zoran Lazovic

 

Comments: Milos Kostic

10.45

11.30

Self-Managing Socialism and Urban Planning – The Case Study of General Plan of Belgrade 1972 Jelena Radosavljevic

 

Comments: Prof. Vladan Djokic

11.30

12.00

Pause
12.00

13.00

Exhibitions as Philosophy? Madeleine Kennedy

 

Comments: Hana Samarzija

13.00

14.30

Lunch
14.30

15.30

Exploring Ideas in your Senses. The capacity of imagination after Immanuel Kant explored in Oswald M. Ungers “City Metaphors” Andrea Weigt

 

Comments: Prof. Carla Danani

15.30

16.00

Pause
16.00

17.00

Semiotics of Architectural: Detail between Rationalization and Representation of Architecture Milos Kostic

 

Comments: Prof. Giusi Struimmello

17.00

18.00

The Perception of Space on the Base of Atmospheres Theresa Rauch

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

Friday, 15th September 2017
Time Title Lecturer
10.00

11.00

Nelson Goodman, Exemplification and Critiques of Modernist Architecture Kasper Laegring

 

Comments: Sandra Meireis

11.00

12.00

“Abandoning Home” – aporia of displacement Jovana Timotijevic

 

Comments: Prof. Joerg Gleiter

12.00

12.30

Pause
12.30

13.30

The Presence in Public Space Stefana Dilova

 

Comments: Madeleine Kennedy

13.30

14.00

Closing remarks, distribution of certificates

 

COURSE / PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE

Course description:

The course includes perspectives of social and political philosophers and architects on the issue of social inequality in cities and intimately related issues such as people’s quality of life and wellbeing. The assumed notion of cities contains an institutional component (a jurisdiction issue), a spatial component (an architectural issue of housing, density of buildings and citizens, a continuous district of settlement), and a cultural component (a particular state of mind which we call “Civicism”). The main aim of the course is to discuss a proposed model of measuring inequality in European cities (as distinguished from states), and then to suggest principles for policies meant to reduce urban inequality in cities in which the majority of people reside, and some of which enjoy budgets larger than most countries’ budgets. At the course the lecturers will argue for bottom-up moral and political reasoning that avoids both full paternalism and full populism while combining objective and subjective approaches. We will discuss the view that philosophy and architecture should begin with understanding the challenges to policy makers and architects (as creators of the cities) from which they should derive to develop and offer the models for improving the general quality of life. Special accent will be put on the developing the Dynamic Public Reflective Equilibrium as the optimal research methodology aimed to reduce political, economic, gender and other forms of inequalities in the city.

* ECTS points available for MA and PhD students. The requirements for ECTS credits are (i) participation on at least 80% of lectures, (ii) presentation of the original paper on the topic of the course/discussion papers on the papers provided by lecturers

Course lecturers:

Avner de Shalit /Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Jonatan Wolff / University College London

Snjezana Prijic Samarzija / CAS SEE – University of Rijeka

Petar Bojanic / CAS SEE – University of Rijeka, University of Belgrade

Vladan Djokic / University of Belgrade

Idis Turato / University of Zagreb

Sandra Meireis / Institute for Architecture –Technical University Berlin

Zoran Lazović / University of Belgrade

Course directors:

Avner de Shalit (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), Jonatan Wolff (University College London), Snjezana Prijic Samarzija (CAS SEE – University of Rijeka), Petar Bojanic (CAS SEE – University of Rijeka University of Belgrade), Joerg Glitter (Technical University of Berlin) Vladan Djokic (University of Belgrade)

Course Program

Course_Participants

Course instructions for students

Philosophy and Architecture: Social Inequalities and Cities

Social Inequalities and Cities is a CAS SEE course that took place at IUC Dubrovnik from 19th to 23rd September 2016.

Course directors:

Snjezana Prijic Samarzija, CAS SEE – University of Rijeka, Petar Bojanic, CAS SEE – University of Rijeka, University of Belgrade, Avner de Shalit, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jonatan Wolff, University College London, Joerg Gleiter, Technical University of Berlin, Vladan Djokic, University of Belgrade

Course description:

The course includes perspectives of social and political philosophers and architects on the issue of social inequality in cities and intimately related issues such as people’s quality of life and wellbeing. The assumed notion of cities contains an institutional component (a jurisdiction issue), a spatial component (an architectural issue of housing, density of buildings and citizens, a continuous district of settlement), and a cultural component (a particular state of mind which we call “Civicism”). The main aim of the course is to discuss a proposed model of measuring inequality in European cities (as distinguished from states), and then to suggest principles for policies meant to reduce urban inequality in cities in which the majority of people reside, and some of which enjoy budgets larger than most countries’ budgets. At the course the lecturers will argue for bottom-up moral and political reasoning that avoids both full paternalism and full populism while combining objective and subjective approaches. We will discuss the view that philosophy and architecture should begin with understanding the challenges to policy makers and architects (as creators of the cities) from which they should derive to develop and offer the models for improving the general quality of life. Special accent will be put on the developing the Dynamic Public Reflective Equilibrium as the optimal research methodology aimed to reduce political, economic, gender and other forms of inequalities in the city.

* ECTS points available for MA and PhD students. The requirements for ECTS credits are (i) participation on at least 80% of lectures, (ii) presentation of the original paper on the topic of the course/discussion papers on the papers provided by lecturers

Course lecturers:

Snjezana Prijic Samarzija, CAS SEE – University of Rijeka

Petar Bojanic, CAS SEE – University of Rijeka, University of Belgrade

Joerg Gleiter, Technical University of Berlin

Vladan Djokic, University of Belgrade

Luka Skansi, University of Rijeka

Idis Turato, University of Zagreb

Avner de Shalit, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Jonatan Wolff, University College London

If you wish to apply for this course, please, visit IUC Dubrovnik.

Jörg H. Gleiter

Architecture and Philosophy: Nietzsche, Décadence and the Physiology of Architecture

On 19th February, 2016, Jörg H. Gleiter, Professor and the Head of the department of Architectural Theory, but also the managing director of the Institute of Architecture of Technische Universität Berlin, held a lecture organized by CAS SEE at the University of Rijeka.

In April 1888, in a tempestuous finale after arriving in Turin, Friedrich Nietzsche noted that this was the first city that was more “a paradise for the feet” than for the eyes. On December 16, 1988, he wrote in a letter to Heinrich Köselitz: “Recently I said to myself: to have a place that one does not want to leave, not even to go into the countryside—where one is glad to walk the streets! Earlier I would have thought it impossible.”
Whereas earlier Nietzsche, as the hermit of Sils-Maria, had found his philosophical inspirations, like Plato, walking in open nature, now in Turin he seemed to have switched to the side of Socrates. While Plato had withdrawn from the city to the quiet of the olive groves, i. e. to the groves of Academe, for Socrates, as Nietzsche noted, the whole city, the stoa, the streets, and the agora were places to stimulate his philosophical activity. As one could “walk through high archways for half hours in one breath”, in spring 1888 in Turin, just like Sokrates, Nietzsche enjoyed wandering among the arcades of Turin like a “philosophical flaneur”.
Nietzsche’s discovery of the city took place against the backdrop of his turn away from music as a “separate art” [Sonderkunst] of the nineteenth century and toward architecture as the “leading art” [Leitkunst] of 20thcentury’s modernism. Unnoticed in the 100 years of Nietzsche studies finally we have to take notice of Nietzsche’s belated yet highly significant turn to architecture.

Joerg H. Gleiter (Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil., M. S., BDA) is the head of the department of architectural theory and the managing director of the Institute of Architecture of Technische Universität Berlin. He has studied in Tübingen, Berlin, Venezia, and New York. He was a visiting professor at VIU (Venice International University) in Venice, at Waseda University in Tokyo, at Bauhaus-University in Weimar, and at Libera Università di Bozen-Bolzano in Italy. He is the founder and editor of the book series Architektur Denken, and co-editor of the International Internet Journal for Architectural TheoryCloud-Cuckoo-Land(Wolkenkuckucksheim). JoergGleiter is a two times fellow in residence of Kolleg Friedrich Nietzsche at Weimar. Among his publications are Architektur und Philosophie [Architecture and Philosophy] (ed. together with Ludger Schwarte, Bielefeld 2015); Ornament Today. Digital. Material. Structural (in English, ed. by Joerg H. Gleiter, Bolzano 2012); Urgeschichte der Moderne [Primordial History of Modernity] (Bielefeld 2010); Der philosophische Flaneur. Nietzsche und die Architektur [The Philosophical Flaneur. Nietzsche and Architecture](Würzburg 2009).

Lecture1 Lecture2 Lecture4Lecture3